Freud’s Studies of the Occult

Professor Sigmund Freud was an extraordinarily controversial figure in his day. His followers adored him, and hailed him as a “Columbus” of the mind. On the other hand, his critics, who were just as vehement, found his views to be outlandish and sometimes referred to him as “the most consummate of charlatans.”(1) Even today, feelings about him run to either extreme, with little or no middle ground.

No doubt Freud’s reputation as an eccentric was enhanced by his delvings into the occult.  Although it often seems difficult to believe, Freud spent a distinct portion of his professional life investigating paranormal phenomena. (Ernest Jones, in his three-volume biography, states rather scornfully that Freud’s interest in the paranormal represents proof of the fact “that highly developed critical powers may co-exist in the same person with an unexpected fund of credulity.”(2))  Much as more traditional psychoanalysts might like to ignore this aspect of their mentor’s career, it must be addressed in order to obtain a complete picture of Freud’s personality.

It is logical to wonder at this point whether Freud truly believed in the phenomena he spent so much time studying. Most scholars tend to agree that Freud was basically a skeptic, but was willing to keep an open mind about certain aspects of the occult. Peter Gay, author of a comprehensive biography, asserts in his book that Freud thought that most “supernatural” phenomena could be explained in a more naturalistic fashion. However, he did believe that thought transference might be possible under certain conditions.(3)

Ernest Jones adopted a slightly different position on the subject of Freud’s belief in the occult. Despite his derogatory statement concerning Freud’s credulity, he contends that equal amounts of evidence exist to either support or deny Freud’s belief in the paranormal. He calls Freud’s attitude an “exquisite oscillation between skepticism and credulity.”(4)  Jones summarizes his opinion by saying that for Freud, the desire to believe was in constant battle with a bias towards disbelief, and that the conflict was apparent in Freud’s writings on the subject.(5)

It is not the purpose of this paper to determine the precise extent of Freud’s acceptance of paranormal phenomena. Such speculation is best left to the scholars and biographers. The intent of this essay is to demonstrate that Freud should not have believed in the occult, since most of the phenomena to which he ascribed a supernatural origin can be better explained by elements of modern psychoanalytic theory.

Freud first became involved with the paranormal in 1905.  He published his last paper on the subject in 1932.  During the intervening years, both he and some of his colleagues, particularly Carl Jung and Sandor Ferenczi, devoted a great deal of time and energy to the study of the occult.(6) (One of Freud’s favorite quotes during those years was, “There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in your philosophy.”(7))

However, not one of the occurrences they witnessed or heard about would today be taken seriously by a respectable parapsychologist. Instead, these instances can be interpreted in several different ways. They could represent examples of theunconscious mind acting in ways that can be predicted by Freud’s theoretical papers.  Alternatively, they could be examples of investigators only seeing what they wish to see.

The occult phenomena that Freud described in his personal communications and published papers can be divided into two broad groups: phenomena that are associated with dreams and those that occur during waking hours.  These categories can be further subdivided into prophetic and telepathic occurrences. Freud also spent some time examining superstitions, beliefs that seemingly chance events actually have a hidden meaning and can predict the future.(8)  While superstitions are not strictly occult phenomena, they deserve mention here because a belief in the supernatural is intimately connected with them.

Freud defined telepathy as the instantaneous transmission of an event between the minds of two people.  According to him, the individuals who are “telepathically” linked must share strong emotional ties,(9) and the event that is transmitted should be charged with negative emotions. (10) This definition is different from the one employed by professional parapsychologists.  They define telepathy as  “extrasensory awareness of another person’s mental content or state.”(11)  No mention is made about the necessity of an emotional link or the type of event that can be transmitted.  This more closely corresponds with Freud’s definition of thought transference, a process he considered to be closely connected to telepathy.(12)

Freud often thought that telepathy, if it did actually exist, might prove to be useful in the analytic setting. Indeed, in one of his papers on technique Freud stated that an analyst must “turn his unconscious like a receptive organ towards the transmitting unconscious of the patient.”(13)  Other psychoanalysts jumped on the same bandwagon. Helene Deutsch and Istvn Holls, contemporaries of Freud’s,(14) published papers on their theories of the role of the occult in psychoanalysis. Even psychoanalysts unconnected to Freud became interested in the subject.

Freud never made any secret of his bias towards a scientific explanation of mental phenomena.  He had, after all, first been trained as a medical doctor.  He described psychoanalysts as having fundamentally materialistic and mechanistic attitudes, even though they were willing to search for undetected qualities of the mind and soul.(15)  This inclination towards rational definitions extended to the occult. 

Freud proposed a possible physical basis for thought transmission (which presumably could be extended to telepathy as well) based on an analogy with the telephone.  He postulated that the thoughts or other mental processes that are transmitted are transformed into physical processes such as waves or rays.(16)  Once these waves or rays reach their target, they are transformed back into the original mental processes.(17) 

Additional evidence for Freud’s belief in this physical basis for the occult can be found in a letter of his to Ferenczi, in which he describes his opinion of a soothsayer whom they had both visited.  Freud thought that she had a “physiological gift” that allowed her access to the thoughts of others.(18)

It is time to turn to the occult phenomena themselves.  Superstitions should be dealt with first.  It can be shown that, even though they seem connected with the supernatural, they are really products of the unconscious mind.  From there, it will be a relatively simple matter to extrapolate from them to the other supernatural happenings that Freud studied. A substantial portion of one of Freud’s papers was devoted to an examination of superstitions.  In this paper, called “Determinism, Belief in Chance and Superstition — Some Points of View,” Freud described the phenomenology of superstitious beliefs.  According to him, the average person knows very little about psychoanalytic theory.  Because of this, the person will be unaware of the significance of his own chance actions.(19)  However, these chance actions will possess unconscious motivations which will attempt to find conscious representations.  Since the person has no other way to express his hidden desires, he will project them onto the external world(20) and will view external chance events as having the ability to reveal things that would otherwise be hidden from him.(21)

Usually, the repressed material tends to be a death wish against a loved one.(22)  It is common for an individual to feel both love and hate for the same person.  The hatred, however, will be imprisoned in the unconscious, since the person will most likely have been brought up to deny such negative emotions.  Since superstitions are usually associated with anticipations of trouble, it can be seen that they are really unconscious expectations of punishment for evil thoughts.(23)

Interestingly, Freud compares superstitious people with paranoiacs.  Both, he says, will fabricate a supernatural reality in order to express unconscious processes and relationships.  It falls to science to recognize this fact and project it back into a psychology of the unconscious.(24)

As alert as Freud was to the causes of superstitions, he fell prey to them nonetheless.  He was particularly susceptible to number superstition, the belief that certain numbers had a special significance.  His telephone number in 1899 was 14362; he was convinced that the last two digits represented the age at which he would die.  This number served to remind Freud of his mortality; indeed, he attributed his own superstitions to an unconscious desire for immortality instead of the usual repressed hostility.(25)

The next topic to be covered is one on which Freud concentrated a great deal: the appearance of occult phenomena in dreams.  Freud wrote several papers dealing with this subject.  He repeatedly maintained, however, that supernatural phenomena are fundamentally distinct from dreams.  The two are often grouped together because they occur together, but the supernatural really has no place in the theory of dreams.  The important questions instead should be why the paranormal seems to surface repeatedly under dream conditions(26) and whether the phenomena involved are truly paranormal in nature.

Occult phenomena tend to be linked with dreams for the additional reason that both seem very mysterious.(27)  In one of his papers, Freud remarked that dreams were frequently regarded as “portals to the world of mysticism” and were seen by the uneducated as occult phenomena in their own right.  However, as Freud would so often repeat, both dreams and their subject matter — occult or mundane — could only be understood by scientific investigation.(28)  Mysticism had no place in the study of dreams.

Telepathic dreams were the more common type of “occult” dreams investigated by Freud; he very rarely analyzed prophetic dreams.  Naturally, he was quick to state that the only reason for mentioning the connection between telepathy and dreams was that sleep seemed to be conducive for the reception of telepathic communications.  Telepathic messages, he claimed, would not be treated any differently by the mind than any other material used in dreams.(29)  Furthermore, telepathic dreams should in all ways adhere strictly to the accepted view of dreams, since telepathy in no way altered the fundamental character of the dream.(30)

According to Freud’s theory of dreams, there are two types of dream-contents.  There is the latent dream-content, which consists of the actual psychical material behind the dream, and there is the manifest dream-

content, which is the material actually remembered by the dreamer.(31)  A process called the dream-work serves to transform the latent into the manifest.(32) 

Freud postulated that a telepathic message would serve as the latent dream-content.  The message would be distorted during the dreaming process, and hence the dream would not exactly reflect the nature of the communication.  As a result, only analysis of a telepathic dream would enable it to be distinguished from a nontelepathic one.  Freud hoped that psychoanalysis would be equally successful at uncovering other types of occult phenomena.(33)

At this point, it is necessary to point out a flaw in Freud’s explanation of telepathic phenomena.  If so-called telepathic messages are modified and distorted by the dream work, then how is it possible to prove that they are indeed telepathic?  Might they just be other unconscious images altered beyond immediate recognition so that they appear to be telepathic in nature?  If this is the case, then analysis should enable alternative interpretations of the dreams to be made that do not involve the supernatural.

As will be subsequently proved, that is exactly what analysis does.  An excellent example of a “telepathic” dream that was stripped of its paranormal nature can be found in Freud’s paper “Dreams and Telepathy,” which was published in 1922.(34)  This dream was reported to Freud via correspondence; Freud was unable to interview the dreamer, whom he did not know personally.(35)

The dreamer was a mature widower who had remarried.  His daughter from his first marriage was pregnant at the time of the dream, but was not expecting the baby for another month.  In his dream, the man vividly saw his second wife and the twins she had just given birth to.  The man gave a very detailed description of the newborn babies, down to the color of their hair, and stated that one was a boy and the other a girl.  Two days later, the man received a telegram stating that his daughter had given birth to different-sex twins at the approximate time of the dream.(36)

The dreamer proceeded to offer more information about himself and his family situation.  He stated that he and his daughter were very close, and that they had frequently corresponded during the pregnancy.  The dreamer therefore felt certain that she would have thought about him during the delivery.  In addition, both the dreamer and his first wife were very fond of children.(37)  Finally, the man considered his second wife unfit to raise children.(38)

To give Freud credit, he immediately acknowledged the possibility that the dream might have a non-paranormal explanation.  He stated that the dream could presumably be a manifestation of a repressed desire on the part of the father to violate the incest taboo and have his daughter bear his children.  Freud claimed that the appearance of the man’s second wife as the mother of the twins represented nothing more than a wish that the daughter could be his second wife.(39)

Furthermore, instead of the dream being a telepathic message of the birth, it might have been an unconscious expression of the man’s belief that his daughter had miscalculated the length of her pregnancy by one month.  Therefore, instead of the babies being due a month from then, they would really be due at the time of the dream.  The appearance of twins instead of a single child could be explained by a wistful notion on the part of the man that if his first wife were still alive she would love to have more than one grandchild.(40)

Therefore, this “telepathic” dream has been shown to be a wish-fulfillment fantasy on the part of the dreamer.(41)  However, despite this interpretation, Freud still insists that the existence of telepathy has not been disproved.  In “Dreams and the Occult,” he states that the possibility of telepathy could only be dismissed if all the circumstances of the case were thoroughly examined, something he could not do because of his lack of personal contact with the dreamer.(42)  These are the words of a man who does not want to admit that the “desire to believe” has been made futile by the necessity of disbelief.

The second type of “occult” dream that Freud analyzed is the prophetic dream.  He only analyzed one of these, and he had absolutely no qualms about stripping it of its supernatural character.  Instead, Freud offered a perfectly rational psychoanalytic interpretation that attributed this kind of dream to activity of the censor between the unconscious and the conscious.(43)

The dream, described in “A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled,” was related to Freud several years after its occurrence.  The dreamer, a woman whom Freud called Frau B., stated that one night she had dreamed that she met a certain Dr. K. at a particular spot on Vienna’s main street.  Dr. K was a friend and had at one time been her physician.  The next day, Frau B. actually met Dr. K. at that spot.(44)

At first glance, this dream would indeed appear to be premonitory, since it predicted an event which later came to pass.  However, Frau B. had not written down the dream immediately after she had woken up.  Indeed, there was no evidence of her having even remembered the dream before the meeting.(45)  This fact proved to be crucial to Freud’s explanation of the situation.

Freud also learned from Frau B. that she had been married twice.  The first time, many years before, had been to an elderly rich gentleman.  Several years after the marriage, the man lost his money, became ill with tuberculosis, and eventually died.  To support them, Frau B. began to give music lessons.  Dr. K. was extremely supportive, and helped her find students.(46) 

The family barrister, also called Dr. K., managed the financial affairs of Herr B. during this period.  At the same time, he managed a different type of affair with Frau B.  However, Frau B.’s scruples prevented her from obtaining any real happiness from this relationship.(47)

Even though the love affair was not a complete success, the barrister continued to offer help and support to Frau B.  She remembered one instance when she was sobbing wildly and wishing for Dr. K’s presence.  At the exact moment of her wish, in he walked.  (Freud did not even consider this to be prophetic, since she probably thought of him a great deal and he probably visited her quite often.)(48)

The dream occurred more than twenty-five years after these events, during which time Frau B. remarried and was widowed again.  This time, however, she had been left with money and a child.  Dr. K. the barrister was still involved in administering her affairs, although they were no longer intimate.(49)

Based on all this information, Freud proposed the following interpretation of the dream.  Frau B. had been expecting a visit from Dr. K., but for some reason he did not come.  As a result, she nostalgically dreamed of the day when he visited at the exact moment she had wanted him to.  However, that period in her life had generally been an unhappy one, and thinking about the bygone romance made her uncomfortable.  As a result, the dream was repressed and she did not remember it when she awoke in the morning.(50)

Later on that day, she went for a walk and met the physician Dr. K.  At that point a distorted derivative of  the dream was able to gain access to Frau B.’s conscious mind.  (Freud’s theory of repression states that derivatives of a repressed idea that are far removed from the actual idea will be able to enter consciousness.)(51)  The neutral figure of the physician was substituted for the emotionally charged figure of the barrister.  Since both figures were named Dr. K., Frau B. believed that she had dreamt the actual rendezvous.(52)

According to Freud’s interpretation, Frau B. created a dream in response to an actual event.(53)  This phenomenon is similar to a screen memory, a psychical construct which plays an important role in childhood development.  Screen memories can be defined as memories of one’s earliest years that are actually formed during later periods of emotional arousal.(54)  They are not entirely fabrications, since they are based on actual memory-traces(55), but they owe their greatest value to the fact that they represent repressed material in the unconscious.(56)  Even though Frau B.’s dream was not in any way involved with childhood events or memories, it still suggests the formation of some sort of screen construction.

Besides examining dream-related occult phenomena, Freud also studied those that appeared in the conscious life of a person.  He conducted several experiments of his own; he attempted thought transference with Ferenczi and his daughter Anna(57) and on one occasion observed Jung as he supposedly made objects rattle of their own accord.(58)  However, these experiments were generally inconclusive.  Of more use is Freud’s analysis of some of the spontaneous experiences recalled by himself or by his patients and friends.

Freud describes many such occurrences.  He particularly liked to examine prophecies of fortune-tellers that did not come true.  He claimed that the significance of these prophecies did not lie in predicting the future,(59) but rather in supporting the existence of telepathy.(60) One such failed prophecy was reported by a 43 year-old female patient of Freud’s.  At the time of her analysis she was childless, yet she desperately wanted to bear children.(61)  (Freud claimed that she reason she wanted to bear children was so that her husband could replace her father, a man whose child she had unconsciously wanted her entire life.)  The reason why the patient could not have children was that her husband had been sterilized by an earlier illness.(62)

Many years before coming to Freud, when the woman had been 27 years old, she had consulted a fortuneteller in the lobby of a Paris hotel.  She was very young-looking and had removed her wedding ring.  The fortuneteller, Monsieur le Professeur, prophesied that she would get married and have two children by age thirty-two.  The prophecy was never fulfilled, yet the woman expressed no hostility towards Monsieur le Professeur in her sessions with Freud.  Rather, she recalled the entire experience with a certain amount of pleasure.(63)

Freud, upon questioning his patient, learned that her mother’s life had proceeded along a path remarkably similar to that predicted by the fortune-teller.  She had married late (she was over thirty at the time of her wedding), but had managed to have two children by the time of her thirty-second birthday.  Therefore, if the fortune-teller’s words were true, the patient would be in the same position as her mother.  To the patient, this

identification with her mother would be tantamount to taking her mother’s place with her father.  The patient could not help but feel pleasure at recollecting the fortune-teller’s prediction of the fulfillment of her fondest wish.(64)

Freud was naturally curious as to how Monsieur le Professeur had come up with those particular numbers.  One theory he proposed was that his patient had transferred her strong unconscious desire to the fortune-teller.  He believed that  emotionally charged thoughts could be transferred quite easily, especially if they were at the border between the conscious and the unconscious.(65)

However, Freud also suggested that the patient herself may have inserted the numbers into the prophecy.  After all, she was relating an incident that had occurred many years prior to her analysis; Freud believed it quite possible that she could have unconsciously falsified the memory.(66)  This explanation seems much more plausible, especially since it seems to signify the creation of a type of screen memory, the existence of which had already been successfully demonstrated in Freud’s publications.

A personal recollection of Freud’s, reported in his paper on determinism and chance, represents another seemingly paranormal phenomenon that was really caused by the workings of the unconscious.  On the surface, the experience seemed prophetic in nature.  Freud recalled taking a walk one night soon after he had received the title of professor.  Suddenly he experienced a vengeful fantasy against a couple who had refused to let him treat their daughter.  He imagined them returning to him after other treatments had failed and begging him to cure the little girl.  He pictured himself saying in response that his professional abilities were the same as they were when he was but a lecturer.  If they wouldn’t avail themselves of his services then, they weren’t going to receive them now.(67)

At that moment, his reverie was disrupted by a loud voice saying, “Good day to you, Professor!”  Freud looked up to see the couple of whom he had just been thinking.  Had he really predicted the future in his thoughts?  Probably not; there is a simpler explanation of the event.(68)

Freud had been walking down a straight, deserted street.  It is probable that he had looked up and seen the couple in the distance.  Due to the hostility he felt towards them he suppressed the perception and instead took refuge in a seemingly spontaneous fantasy.(69)  So much for Freud’s prophetic powers.

All the preceding examples of supposedly occult phenomena were proven to be natural occurrences instead.  There presumably exist mundane explanations for most of the other so-called supernatural happenings that are constantly being reported.  The question to consider now is why people persist in believing in the occult.

According to Dr. George Devereux, telepathy is connected to infantile omnipotence fantasies.(70)  So perhaps, as Helene Deutsch suggests, man’s belief in his own occult powers is a way of elevating himself to the level of the “Divinity which he fashioned in his own likeness.”(71)  Or maybe belief in the paranormal is a type of narcissism; Freud based his studies of narcissism on children and primitive people, both of whom tend to believe in magic and the “omnipotence of thoughts.”(72)

However, I think the best explanation of why people believe in the occult was offered by Freud himself in “Psychoanalysis and Telepathy.”  He stated that this type of belief was an attempt to regain by supernatural means “the lost appeal of life on this earth.”(73)  This puts me in mind of  “Miniver Cheevy”, E. A. Robinson’s poem about a man who found no appeal in his life because he was born at the wrong time.

“Miniver Cheevy, born too late,

Scratched his head and kept on thinking;

Miniver coughed, and called it fate,

And kept on drinking.”(74)

Perhaps those who too fanatically believe in the occult were also

born too late.

References

(1) Gay, Peter.  Freud: A Life for Our Time.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988, p. xvi.

(2) Jones, Ernest.  The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (vol. 3), New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1957, p. 375.

(3) Gay, pp. 444-5.

(4) Jones, p. 375.

(5) Jones, p. 406.

(6) Jones, pp. 382-383, 405.

(7) Jones, p. 381.

(8) Freud, Sigmund.  “Determinism, Belief in Chance and Superstition — Some Points of View.”  The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1965, p. 257.

(9) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, p. 95.

(10) Jones, p. 381.

(11) Handbook of Parapsychology, Benjamin B. Wolman, ed.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1977, p. 935.

(12) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult,” pp. 97-8.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(13) Freud, Sigmund.  “Recommendations to Physicians Practicing Psycho-Analysis.”   The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, p. 360.

(14) Gay, p. 537.

(15) Freud, Sigmund.  “Psychoanalysis and Telepathy.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities

Press, Inc., 1953, p. 58.

(16) Jones, p. 381.

(17) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult,” p. 108.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(18) Jones, pp. 384-5.

(19) Freud, Sigmund.  “Determinism and Superstition,”  pp. 257-8.  (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.)

(20) Jones, p. 378.

(21) Freud, Sigmund.  “Determinism and Superstition,”  p. 258.  (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.)

(22) Jones, p. 378.

(23) Freud, Sigmund.  “Determinism and Superstition,”  p. 260.  (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.)

(24) Ibid., pp. 258-9.

(25) Gay, p. 58.

(26) Freud, Sigmund.  “The Occult Significance of Dreams.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, p. 87.

(27) Ibid., p. 87.

(28) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult,” p. 91.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(29) Ibid., p. 96.

(30) Ibid., p. 95.

(31) Freud, Sigmund.  “On Dreams.”  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, p. 148.

(32) Freud, Sigmund.  “The Dream-Work.”  Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1966, p. 170.

(33) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult,” p. 97.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(34) The Freud Reader, p. xliii.

(35) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and Telepathy,” p. 71.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(36) Ibid., pp. 71-2.

(37) Ibid., pp. 72-3.

(38) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult,” p. 96.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(39) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and Telepathy,” pp. 75-6.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(40) Ibid., p. 76.

(41) Ibid., p. 76.

(42) Freud, Sigmund.   “Dreams and the Occult,” p. 97.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(43) Freud, Sigmund.  “A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, p. 51.

(44) Ibid., p. 49.

(45) Ibid., p. 49.

(46) Ibid., pp. 49-50.

(47) Ibid., p. 50.

(48) Ibid., p. 50.

(49) Ibid., p. 50.

(50) Ibid., p. 50.

(51) Freud, Sigmund.  “Repression.”  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, p. 571.

(52) Freud, Sigmund.  “A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled,” pp. 50-1.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(53) Ibid., p. 51.

(54) Freud, Sigmund.  “Screen Memories.”  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, p. 126.

(55) Ibid., pp. 124-5.

(56) Ibid., p. 126.

(57) Jones, p. 395.

(58) Jones, pp. 383-4.

(59) Freud, Sigmund.  “Psychoanalysis and Telepathy,” p. 59.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(60) Freud, Sigmund.  “The Occult Significance of Dreams,” p. 88.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(61) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult,” pp. 98-99.   (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(62) Freud, Sigmund.  “Psychoanalysis and Telepathy,” pp. 61-62.   (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(63) Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult,” pp. 98-99.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(64) Ibid., p. 99.

(65) Freud, Sigmund.  “The Occult Significance of Dreams,” p. 89.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(66) Freud, Sigmund.  “Psychoanalysis and Telepathy,” p. 65.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(67) Freud, Sigmund.   “Determinism and Superstition,”  pp. 263-4.  (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.)

(68) Ibid., p. 264.

(69) Ibid., p. 264.

(70) Devereux, George.  “A Summary of Istvn Holls’ Theories.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, p. 199.

(71) Deutsch, Helene.  “Occult Processes Occurring During Psychoanalysis.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, p. 133.

(72) Freud, Sigmund.  “On Narcissism: An Introduction.”  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, p. 547.

(73) Freud, Sigmund.  “Psychoanalysis and Telepathy,” p. 57.  (in Devereux, Psychoanalysis and the Occult.)

(74) Collected Poems of Edwin Arlington Robinson.  New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954, p. 348.

Bibliography

Deutsch, Helene.  “Occult Processes Occurring During Psychoanalysis.” Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, pp. 133-146.

Devereux, George.  “A Summary of Istvn Holls’ Theories.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International

Universities Press, Inc., 1953, pp. 199-203.

The Freud Reader.  Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, 832 pp.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Determinism, Belief in Chance and Superstition — Some Points of View.”  The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.  New York:

W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1965, p. 239-279.

Freud, Sigmund.  “The Dream-Work.”  Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1966, pp. 170-183.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and the Occult.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, pp. 91-109.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Dreams and Telepathy.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, pp. 69-86.

Freud, Sigmund.  “The Occult Significance of Dreams.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1953, pp. 87-90.

Freud, Sigmund.  “On Dreams.” (excerpt)  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, pp. 142-172.

Freud, Sigmund.  “On Narcissism: An Introduction.” (excerpt)  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, pp.

545-562.

Freud, Sigmund.  “A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press,

Inc., 1953, pp. 49-51.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Psychoanalysis and Telepathy.”  Psychoanalysis and the Occult, George Devereux, ed.  New York: International Universities Press,

Inc., 1953, pp. 56-68.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Recommendations to Physicians Practicing Psycho-Analysis.”   The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and

Company, Inc., 1989, pp. 356-363.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Repression.”  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, pp. 568-572.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Screen Memories.” (excerpt)  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, pp. 117-126.

Freud, Sigmund.  “Totem and Taboo.” (excerpt)  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, pp. 481-513.

Freud, Sigmund.  “The Unconscious.” (excerpt)  The Freud Reader, Peter Gay, ed.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1989, pp. 572-584.

Gay, Peter.  Freud: A Life for Our Time.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988, 810 pp.

Handbook of Parapsychology, Benjamin B. Wolman, ed.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1977, 967 pp.

Jones, Ernest.  The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (vol. 3), New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1957, 537 pp.

Robinson, Edwin Arlington.  Collected Poems of Edwin Arlington Robinson.  New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954, 1018 pp.

(c) 1993 Rebecca Drayer

Rebecca A. Drayer, EMT-A  |    drayer@minerva.cis.yale.edu

Neurobiology major           |    Computing Assistant

                                       |    Silliman College, Yale University

Advertisements